Produce tornadoes are the mother giant cumulonimbus, which dozens of kilometers wide cloud may rise to 16 kilometers altitude. We will pot of cold water heating, that can be found after heating the water will rise, the upper cold water will be lowered, while the sunlight so that the ground temperature, the convection will produce the same phenomenon.
Air resulting in the block of cotton-like white clouds, this is the cumulus, cumulus continue the development of the formation of cumulonimbus. At this point, "latent heat" on the occurrence of an important role.
Plot snow internal heating due to latent heat of constant cloud of air, resulting in a strong updraft.
The so-called "latent heat" (latent heat) is released when water vapor into liquid water, heat, for example, 25 degrees Celsius, 1 grams of water vapor into liquid water with temperature, it will release latent heat of 583 cards. Will boiling water out of the top of the palm of your hand and feel that will be hot heat, that is, small droplets of water vapor into the white at the time of latent heat.
This cumulonimbus with low-temperature drying from the north of the jet stream after the confluence even stronger, so the formation of more clouds tablets, raindrops and ice crystals, but also to latent heat release to create more powerful updraft, and its speed per second and sometimes Tatsu dozens of meters, thus the ground caused by storms, heavy rain, under the hail, thunder and lightning, brought disaster. Cumulonimbus will rotate if it can extend the life, may become a giant cumulonimbus.
Many warm wet south-east wind, and shun the Rocky Mountains along the south boundary of the northwest wind is the dry line. Drying line showing wavy morphology and the formation of vortex in the forthcoming, the wall by the giant cumulonimbus clouds in the occurrence of a tornado.
Following this discovery only after we have seen in movies organizations of "Tornado searcher" and they really can be said to be a pioneer in tornado research. According to results of research on these people, we will have a giant tornado cumulonimbus called "super-balloon" (super cell) in order to breakdown.
The power of the strongest tornadoes happen in China and the United States on the open plain, near the core of a tornado, with winds of around 480 kilometers per hour.
Destruction of traces of
Although the tornado ravaged areas narrow, but the place is devastated by.
For example: upper right map of the United States a small town in Kentucky. Transit in the tornado, some shelter house is almost gone.
A tornado does not necessarily have taken place on land, the water will cause the formation of a tornado of water. Moved in across the land when the water will lose energy. A tornado formed by the water column is usually limited to the warm season, the main complication in the shallow waters.
** The United States has an annual average of 750 tornadoes, the most commonly issued in the main period between 4-6.
** Fast rotation of the tornado would normally be divided into several smaller tornadoes.
** November 1981, the United Kingdom abnormal 102 small tornado outbreak.
We have not been able to understand the structure of a tornado, because the high risk without accessible and tornadoes are generated in the bottom of a giant cumulonimbus, so can not be observed from above. Howard Mann, who made use of Doppler radar reflection intensity of a tornado is very similar to the level of distribution patterns Typhoon, but Typhoon has hundreds of times in a tornado the size, shape much like the typhoon.
Reflection intensity tornado center is weak, much like the typhoon clear calm eyes, surrounded by a strong reflected wave of the donut-type ring, which is central to strong winds欥powder of sand and fragments, which is equivalent to around a giant typhoon eye cumulonimbus base. Arm ring outside are giant cumulonimbus by the convergence of the airflow around the sand blowing and fragment formation, equivalent to a typhoon brought heavy rain.
Drag under tornado
Heyday period, the upper cumulonimbus with the center of the pressure difference between the increased air flow will be downward drag out, it is "under the gas drag type (emission type)" tornado. Center under the ground after the collision drag airflow around the proliferation of once, and with super airbags airflow convergence encounter this volume at a distance of several hundred meters from the wind center formed donut-type ring updraft area.
by the tornado that strong wind blowing the sand and fragments will be convergence in the donut-type ring and with an increase, this situation will often form a giant tornado. By radar observations of the donut-ring strong reflected wave, we know this is under a tornado-type flow drag, at the same time know it in seconds, speed 70 meters above the speed of rotation to the left.
Tornado not only happen in the United States, China, Southeast Asia, India, Italy and other places have been reports of a tornado disaster. Recently, neighboring Japan also began to pay attention to tornadoes and similar phenomena of abrupt burst under the drag (down bourst), air speed of 4 kilometers more than 4 kilometers below said microburst micro-bourst) and the resulting disaster.
The so-called "drag under abrupt explosion" is over heyday period from cumulonimbus drag generated by airflow under strong collision avoidance into a strong wind after the ground around the phenomenon of proliferation, much like a tornado but the rotation range is less than a tornado, convergence and divergence dispersion larger than a tornado.
May cause abnormal localized disasters, such as the threat of small water spouts water (water-spout), the Gobi desert, the Sahara desert, the Taklimakan Desert and other places of small dust storms (dust devil), the Atlantic hurricane ( hurricane) as well as the invasion of the Pacific typhoons in the West Bank (tyPhoon) and so on.
Super airbag to the heyday period of growth before the tornado in the updraft like a vacuum cleaner sucked into the ground like material, this is known as the "updraft type (sucked into type)."
At this point sand, fragments, etc. focus on the bottom of a tornado, the air around the cyclone center by the centrifugal force of the impact of central pressure drop.